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The Kyiv Productive Medical Institute (1931-1936) – the 2nd Kyiv State Medical Institute (1936 -1944) – the Chernivtsi State Medical Institute (1944-1997) – the Bukovinian State Medical Academy (1997-2005) - since 2005 –Bukovinian State Medical University- such is a brief history of the foundation and development of the institution of higher education established in 1931 and its transformation into present-day Bukovinian State Medical University (BSMU). Since its foundation up to the present time the educational institution has changed both its name and location, under the influence of various circumstances, but has never changed the status of the institution of higher education and has not interrupted its activities in training highly qualified physicions.
The Kyiv period of the activity of the educational institution andfunctioningof the Institute during the evacuation period (1931-1944).
In the spring of 1931 in accordance with the decree of the Council of People's Commissars (CPS) the Productive Medical Institute was established on the base of the Kyiv First Workers’ Hospital which started the training of doctors from doctor’s assistants and nurses without discontinuing work. The director of the newly-created Institute, a Candidate of Medical Sciences, the obstetrician-gynecologist N.H.Okroparydze was appointed. The functions of the Clinical Deparments were performed by the corresponding hospital units according to the profile, and the responsibilities of the Heads of the Departments were entrusted to the heads of these units. The hospital laboratories were simultaneously the laboratories for Theoretical Departments of the Productive Medical Institute.
In 1931, there were three admission periods of students ( 42 persons in June, 84 in August, 112 in December), and two admissions in 1932 (200 persons in April and August) from medical workers of the First Workers’ Hospital and the Zhovtneva Hospital, Kyiv’s polyclinics and the Institute of Maternity and Childhood Protection. 42 certified doctors graduated in 1934, whereas in 1935 - 34 graduates.The practical experience of the "Hospital-Institute" and the professional level of doctors of the first graduations showed that the First Workers’ Hospital was a good training base, which provided a high level of doctors’ training.
Therefore, at the request of the People's Commissariat of Health Protection (PCHP), the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), on the basis of Decree № 1049 of the 16th of July 1936, reorganized the Kyiv Productive Medical Institute from the 1st of September, 1936 into the stationary 2nd Kyiv State Medical Institute (2nd KSMI) with a Medical Faculty. On the basis of the same decree the buildings and equipment of the First Workers’ Hospital were transferred to the possession of the 2nd KSMI, that enabled to place all the Theoretical and most of the Clinical Departments in the picturesque institute’s estate. Out of 20 Clinical Departments 16 were created and placed in specialized departments of the hospital which became the Institute’s own clinics, and the remaining six on the basis of municipal and departmental hospitals of Kyiv. M.Ye. Lymanskyi, a Candidate of Medical Sciences, the chief of this Hospital was appointed as the Director of the Institute.
Many Departments of the 2nd Kyiv Medical Institute were headed by famous academicians V.Yu.Chahovets (Department of Normal Physiology), V.M.Ivanov (Department of General Therapy), I.M.Ishchenko (Department of General Surgery), A.I.Zamkova-Smirnova (Department of Pathologic Anatomy), Professors B.Ya.Padalka (Department of Infectious Diseases), H.S.Barh (Department of Microbiology), V.H.Lazarev (Department of Neurology), P.I.Barannyk (Department of General Hygiene), I.V.Bazylevych (Department of Hospital Therapy), A.S.Berliand (Department of Propedeutics of Internal Diseases), A.M.Olshanetskyi (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology), B.M.Horodynskyi (Department of Hospital Surgery), V.H.Balaban (Department of Pediatric Diseases), S.I.Radchenko (Department of Social Hygiene), Ye.I.Levin (Department of Dermatovenereology), Ya.H.Zamkovskyi (Department of Eye Diseases), V.P.Kibalchych (Department of Anatomy), P.S.Shydlovskyi (Department of Topographic Anatomy), R.A.Dymshshch (Department of Pathophysiology), F.I. Geilih (Department of Pharmacology), B.M.Koldaiev (Department of Biochemistry), S.M.Chumakov (Department of Inorganic Chemistry) and others.
During 1931-1940 the number of the students increased from 47 (in 1931) to 1618 (1940), and the graduation of doctors increased from 42 (in 1934) to 245 (1940). 560 doctors were trained over a 10- year period (1931-1941). At the beginning of World War II, in July 1941, all the students of the Institute were directed to Kharkiv because of a threat of an occupation of Kyiv, where they were temporarily enrolled into the 1st Kharkiv Medical Institute. In August the educational and material resources and the available at that time professorial and teaching staff of 1-st and 2-nd Kyiv Medical Institutes were evacuated to Kharkiv . Undergoing regular bombings, not all trains could reach Kharkiv without losses.
Therefore, a United Kyiv Medical Institute was temporarily established over the period of war by the decision of the Government of the USSR via combining the regular staff and educational-material resources of the two Medical Institutes, which they managed to collect in Kharkiv after the evacuation from Kyiv, the Kyiv United Medical Institute was established. The departments of this Institute were completed not according to the manning schedule, but combined the personnel and the equipment of both Kyiv Institutes. With such a staff and the equipment the Kyiv Medical United Institute functioned till the resumption of the activity of the 1st and 2nd Medical Institutes as individual educational institutions in 1944.
The threat of Kharkiv’s occupation by the enemy forced to evacuate the Kyiv Medical United Institute to the City of Cheliabinsk in the Urals, where it was located at 35 Commune street and worked until returning in 1943 to liberated Kyiv. The Chelyabinsk Medical Institute (now the Cheliabinsk State Medical Academy) created at the expense of the material equipment and the personnel of the Departments and clinics of the Kyiv Medical Institutes functionate up till now.
The Activity of the Educational Institution in Bukovyna
After returning to Kyiv destroyed by war, the activity of the 1st Kyiv Medical Institute (now Bogomolets National Medical University) was renewed in the same 1943, establishing it on the educational and clinical basis of both institutions, which survived from destruction.
In the autumn of 1944 the fighting operations were over on the territory of Bucovyna. People’s Commissariat of Health Protection appealed to the Council of People’s Commissariat of Ukr. SSR in the August of 1944 with a request to resume the functioning of the Kyiv Medical Institute with its relocation to the City of Chernivtsi which almost did not endure destructions during the fighting operations and had all the necessary conditions for locating in it of a higher medical educational establishment, ensuring its full value activity. In order to persuade the Counsil of People’s Commissars in the expediency of the relocation of the educational institution to Chernivtsi the Chernivtsi Regional Executive Committee and the Regional Committee of the CP(b)U approved a joint Resolution №404 of September 11, 1994 with a request to locate the 2nd KSMI in Chernivtsi City. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Ukr. SSR permitted the People’s Commissariat of Health Protection by Resolution №1360 of October 20, 1944 to resume the activity of the 2nd Kyiv Medical Institute with a Medical Faculty and relocate it to Chernivtsi City.
In compliance with this Resolution the Executive Committee of the Chernivtsi Regional Council was obliged “to choose and allot the following premises to the Medical Institute: 1) houses № 5-6 in Theatre Square (the former commercial and industrial chamber of Bucovyna and the Jewish house); 2) house №1 in Neogoi Besarab street (the present-day M.Stern street, 1 and the house of the educational-administrative building of the Chernivtsi State Financial – Economic Institute); 3) the house of the former Theological Faculty of Chernivtsi University; which was located in one of the buildings of the Residence of Bukovinian Metropolitans ( the building of the present-day Philosophical – Theological Faculty and the Faculty of Foreign Languages of Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University).
The Resolution obliged the bodies of the local authorities of Chernivtsi City and the Chernivtsi Region to render the necessary help in the arrangement and organization of the functioning of the educational establishment and contained a list of specific measures obligatory to be fulfilled. They only forgot to point out in Resolution №1360 of 20.10.1944 how the 2nd Kyiv Medical Institute should be named after its relocation to Chernivtsi. In this connection the first orders issued by the acting director of this Institute Associate Professor Yevhen Illich Kefeli are of interest (later a Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Department of Anatomy of the 1st Kyiv Medical Institute). For example, Order №1 about the 2nd Kyiv Medical Institute in the City of Chernivtsi of October 21, 1944”. All the orders in October started after the same pattern until an explanation was received in November to the effect that starting from the 20th of October 1944 the Institute is already named the Chernivtsi Institute and not the Kyiv Institute.
Order №1 of 21.10.1944 is also of interest because paragraph 1 evidences that already on the 3d of September 1944 the People’s Commissariat Health Protection resumed the activity of the 2nd Kyiv Medical Institute with a Medical Faculty in the City of Chernivtsi and approved a contingent of students for the first course in 1944 – 1945 academic year - 300 in number by its order №1858. There isn’t a mistake in the dates in the approval of these decisions in the adduced documents (Resolution № 1360 of 20.10.1944 of the CPC and Order №1858 of 03.09.1944 of the PCHP), regulating the resumption of the functioning of the 2nd KSMI. These documents are preserved in the archives under such numbers and dates. It`s true that there are attempts correct with the help of a pencil divergences in the dates of taking crucial decisions pertaining to the 2nd KSMI. Generally, the archives documents evidence that, probably, it was not simple to renew the functioning of higher schools under the conditions of waging a war. It should also be noted that not all the researchers of the 2nd KSMI, especially, distinguished once, expressed a wish to move along with the Institute to the City of Chernivtsi to Bucovyna where detachments of the Ukranian Insurgent Army (UIA) continued their fighting in the nearby woods. Having filled the proposed posts at the Departments of the 1st KSMI and the later resumed Kyiv Institute of doctors` advanced training they remained to work in Kyiv. The admission of students, 250 in number to the first course of the 1944 – 1945 academic year was implemented by the 1st Kyiv Medical Institute in Kyiv for the Chernivtsi Medical Institute, and another 50 persons were enroled from the local population and the wounded who were treated at military hospitals that were located in Chernivtsi at that time. The rest of the courses (2,3,4) of the Institute were replenished up to March 1945 by a transfer of students from different Medical Institutes of the former Soviet Union.
The 2nd Kyiv Institute and from the 20th of October 1944 – the Chernivtsi Medical Institute resumed its activity under the extremely difficult conditions of the final year of the war and the post-war ruin. The local authorities couldn’t duly fulfill the resolution of the CPC of the Ukrainian. Soviet Socialist Republic under №1360, the latter being evidenced by a written appeal of the acting director of the Institute Ye.I.Kefeli to the secretary of the Regional Committee of the CP(b)U and the head of the Chernivtsi Regional Executive Committee. Here are some information from this letter: “On the 21th of October a brigade consisting of 4 persons to organize an institute arrived to Chernivtsi. At the present time in 14 days of work, the following should be noted: 1) as of 4.11.1944 the Institute numbers 252 students and another 24 persons are still completing to take entry examinations; 2) the teaching procedure at the Institute began on the 1st of November at the Departments of Chernivtsi State University; 3) the admission of students to the Chernivtsi Medical Institute was prolonged up to the 15th of November 1944.
The conditions at the Institute are not satisfactory. Only the building in Theatre Square, 6 and the “Bristol” hotel in the square of Dacia, 1 (the present-day square of the Philarmonic Society” were transferred to the possession of the Institute out of the buildings allotted by the Resolution of the Council of People`s Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR. The buildings in Theatre Square, 5 (the present-day the Central Palace of Culture of the City of Chernivtsi) in the street of Neahoi Besarab (the present-day M. Stern`s street, 1), in Masaryk street, 2 (the present-day Bohomolets street, 2) have not been handed over the Institution up till now. The students who have come from Ukraine and Russia live in the premises of the Theological building, having neither beds nor mattresses. The majority sleep on the floor. The Medical Institute have no fuel, therefore, the premises of the allotted educational buildings and hostels are not heated. A warrant for 150 cubic metres of firewood is given out by the Regional Plan, but the Institute has no transport and cannot bring it. Out of 75 flats promised only 6 were allotted on the outskirts of the city. No furniture has been obtained and the Institute hasn`t got it. Classes are conducted at broken desks borrowed from a school and with the use of other casual pieces of furniture. All the necessary notes are made by both lecturers and students on the doors in class because of the absence of blackboards. The buildings allotted to the possession of the Institute in Theatre square and Dacia square require a thorough overhaul which cannot be accomplished by anybody. We ask to provide help in the solution of problems, since in the future the situation will be more difficult.”
This letter of November 6, 1944 was signed by the chief of the Regional Department of Health Protection V.I.Hordienko and the acting director of the Institute Ye.I.Kefeli.
At last for the location of the Institute the following premises were alloted and secured: the building of the Commercial and Industrial Chamber of Bukovyna in Theatre Square, 2, instead of the building of the Theological Faculty – the building of the former pupil’s dormitory of the school - «Ion I Nistor» in Massaryk St., 2 (the present theoretical building in Bogomolets’ St., 2) the building of the former local railroad management (the present educational building in Kobylians’ka St., 42), the former dental building and after the ophthalmic hospital at Balmash St., 3 (present morphological building at Ryz’ka St., 3).
The following premises were allotted as student’s dormitories: the "Bristol" hotel for 100 persons (after major repairs and reconstructions in 1948-1950 it became dormitory № 1 which numbers 480 beds in Zankovets’ka St., 11); the building in Chervonoarmiis’ka St., 7, with 125 beds (the present-day educational building in Chervonoarmiis’ka St., 3) the building in Chervonoarmiis’ka St., 23 (opposite the present day trade building "Ryazan’") with 50 beds, the 5th floor with 130 beds in the building in Kobylans’ka St., 53 (the present-day German House). Apart from the dormitories for students’ residence the Institute hired and paid from its budget another 270 beds (so-called "nooks") in the private flats of the city dwellers.
A closed type canteen, laundry and shower-balts, sewing workshop (it could sew 4 suits or 4 coats per month) a tailoring and shoe repairing shop ( it could fulfill the orders to repair 45 pairs of shoes and make 8 pairs of new shoes every month) were located and operating in the educational building situated at Bogomolets’ St., 2 to provide only the professorial-teaching staff and the students of the Institute.
In order to organize accessory householding, the Institute alloted 75 hectares of arable land in the village of Chornovka (a suburban village of Chernivtsi).
Despite all the difficulties already from the first years of the functioning of the educational institution in Bukovyna self-less and fruitful work of the staff enabled to raise to the appropriate level the authority of the Institute among other medical educational institutions and to establish a high quality of the Chernivtsi doctort’s diploma. A significant contribution to the training of medical personnel and the development of medical science was made by outstanding scientists of the Institute, head’s of the Departments, Professors S.M.Savenko (Nervous disease), B.L Radzikhovskyi (Ophthalmology) M.K.Vents’kovs’kyi and D.B.Teodor (Obstetrics and Gynecology), V.O. Elberh, N.B.Shchupak, M.Yu. Rapoport, V.A.Tryher (Internal Diseases) Ye.R.Tsytryts’kyi and O.Yu.Manheim (Surgery) Z.N. Hrzhebin (Dermatovenereology) S.P.Zakryvydoroha (Pharmacology) I.H. Fedorov and D.S. Chetvertak (Pathophysiology) K.D. Filatova (Anatomy) O.M. Fedorovych (Pediatrics) H.P. Kalyna (Microbiology) Ya. L.Skliarov (Normal Physiology), N.M.Shynkerman (Pathoanatomy) N.L. Tatarenko (Psychiatry) M.I. Myhaloits (Otolaryngologist diseases) A.V.Kyrylicheva (Histology). Exactly this cohort of scientists under the guidance of the rectors D.S Lovlia (1945-1951) and M.B. Man’kovskoyi (1951-1954) initiated the activitiy of the Medical Institute in the first decade after its removal to Chernivtsi. Already in 1946 the first graduation of 88 doctors took place, 8 of them received honours degree.
With the beginning of its activity in Chernivtsi the Institute becomes a scientific-methodological and a medicoprophylactic center of Bukovyna. The researchers of the Institute together with the local bodies of health protection wiped out in the region the epidemics of typhus (spotted fever) (1944) and recrudescent typhus(1945), prevented the epidemics of typhoid (1945), liquidated the high morbidity of sexually transmitted (venereal) diseases (1944-1948 ), TB (tuberculosis) (1944-1958), endemic goiter (1946-1963), more than in 15 times reduced child mortality (1944-1968 ).
The leading scientists of the Institute held the appointments of the chief specialists pluralistically in the Chernivtsi region (e.g., the surgeon - Ye.R.Tsytryts’kyi, the therapeutist - V.O. Elberh, the obstetrician-gynecologist - M.K.Ventskovskyi, the neurologist - S.M. Savenko, traumatologist - O.Y. Manheym).
Soon the scientific researches and developments of the Institute’s scientists were universally recognized not only in Ukraine but also abroad (Rector M.M. Kovaliov, 1954-1962 ) concerning the problems of pathology of the nervous system, especially neuroinfections (Professor S.M. Savenko), psychiatry (Professor H.Yu.Malis) Gastroenterology (Prof. N.B. Schupak, V.A. Tryher, O.I. Samson) Endocrinology (Prof. Ya.D. Kirshenblat, N.M.Shinkerman, M.N Kovaliev, Associate Professor B.B. Rodnianskyi) Embryotopography (Professors M.H. Turkevych, V.M. Kruts’iak) Ophthalmology (Professor B.L. Radzihovs’kyi), synthesis of new antimicrobial agents (Professors H.P.Pis’ko, G.A. Troian, H.K. Paliy, Yu.L.Volians’kyi).
In 1963-1974 thanks to the activity of the rector O.D.Yukhymets’ the educational-material base of the Institute greatly expanded and improved. A reconstruction of some educational buildings was accomplished, four new dormitories were built for students, a beautiful sport complex, health and sports camp on the Dniester- river, canteens and a consumer service establishment for students were put into operation, a cattle farm and farmyard were built. Under the direction of the rectors O.D.Yhuhymets’ (1963-1974) and V.K. Patratii (1974-1993) an important role in the growth and expansion of the authority of Chernivtsi Medical University beyond the borders of Ukraine was ascribed to the activity of the well known scholars in the country and abroad - P.N . Gudzenko, T.K. Nabukhotnoyi (Pediatrics) H.T. Pis’ko, Yu.I. Ivanov (Pharmacology) M.H. Turkevych V.M. Kruts’yak (Anatomy) H.A. Troian, Yu. L. Wolanskyi, H.K. Palii (Microbiology) P.V. Voloshyn, I.K. Vladkovskyi, V.K. Chernetskyi (Neurology) O.S. Sokol (Taraban) V.P. Lipkovs’kyi, A.M. Mykhaylova (Infectious Diseases), E.Yu. Malis, Yu.A. Antropov (Psychiatry) D.O. Bytchenko, O.O. Hladkov (Otolaryngological Diseases) B.A. Pahmurnyi, A.I. Gozhenko, L.M. Ochelenko (Pathophysiology) Ya.B. Kirshenblat (Normal Physiology and Endocrinology) V.L. Henkin, L.I. Roman, S.A. Kats, B.O. Milkov (Surgery) V.A. Tryher, O.I. Samson (Internal Diseases).
The authority of the Institute was strengthened by its graduates as well. Two alumni of the Institute appointed as Ministers of Health of Ukraine, a talented surgeon, a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, a State Prize winner of the USSR V.D. Bratus (1954-1957 and 1968-1975) and the surgeon, Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine Yu.P. Spizhenko (1992-1994 ).
Many graduates and scientists of the Institute were set the head of well-known in Ukraine and abroad scientific-research centers and institutes ( a corresponding member of NAMS of Ukraine H.V.Haiko – the director of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, a corresponding member of NAMS of Ukraine D.I.Zabolotnyi –the director of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Otorhinolaryngology, Prof. Yu.L.Volianskyi - the director of the Kharkiv Ukrainian Research Institute of Microbiology and Immunology; V.V.Pokanevych – the general director of the Ukrainian Association of Folk Medicine; V. Shapoval – the director of the Nephrourological center, the head of the Department of Urology of Kharkov Medical University, a corresponding member of NAMS of Ukraine M.H. Prodanchuk – the director of the Ecological Hygiene and Toxicology Institute named after L.I. Medved (Kyiv), academician of NAMS and a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine D.D. Zerbino – the director of the Clinical Pathology Institute of Lviv National Medical University named after Danylo Halyts’kyi and Prof. A.I. Gozhenko – the director of the state-owned enterprise (SOE) “Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Transport Medicine”, Prof. T.D.Nykula – the head of the Department of Propedeutics of Internal Diseases № 2, pro-rectorfor academic affairs and reseach (1986-1997) of the National Medical University named after O.O. Bogomolets’, the chief therapist of Estonia N.V.Elshtein – a Doctor of Medical Science, Professor, Honoured Physician of Estonia, widely known for his philosophical-publicistic books "Dialogues on medicine", "Medicine and time").
The TTTTTThe alumni of the Institute, and later wel-known scholars and public figures were Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassadors of Ukraine in India (Professor H.I. Khodorovskyi) and Romania (Professor L.I.Sanduliak). Many graduates work in the countries near and far abroad.
The Chernivtsi Medical Institute provides not only a high level of professional training of doctors, but also provides all the possibilities for the flourishing of talents with which God endowed his alumni. Thus, during the training at the Institute the talent of well known in Ukraine and worldwide artists, winners of the State Prize named after Shevchenko disclosed and flourished with all colors - the composer, poet, musician and performer of folk songs Volodymyr Ivasiuk, the songwriter, People’s Artist of Ukraine, a civil activist Michael Tkach, the winner of the Gold Medal of UNESCO and the title "The Golden Name of World Culture," the surgeon, pianist, composer Joseph Elhiser. All of them combined a successful studies with the participation in amateur talent activities. By the way, one of the most famous Ukrainian songs in the world "Red Rue" was composed by V. Ivasiuk when he was a 4th year student of the Chernivtsi Medical Institute (now BSMU) at a lecture in Dermatovenerology.
Bukovyna State Medical Academy (BSMA) was established by Resolution of the Cabinet of Minister of Ukraine № 312 of April 4, 1997 on the basis of the Chernivtsi Medical Institute. In 2005, the Academy was reorganized into Bukovinian State Medical University according to the implementing order of the Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine of 02.03.2005, № 46-r and the order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine of 15.03.2005, № 110 "On the reorganization of Bucovyna State Medical Academy." According to order of the Cabinet of Ministry of Ukraine from 29.05.1997, № 526 and the Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine of 20.06.1997, № 218 higher medical institutions of 1st and 2nd accreditation levels (Chernivtsi, Novoselytsia, Vashkivtsi Medical Colleges) were subordinated to BSMU.